All behavior serves a purpose or function—typically to access or avoid something. Thus, it is important to figure out the function of a student’s behavior to develop a plan with likelihood for success. To help determine function, school teams should start by collecting data on the A, B, Cs of behavior: Antecedent (A): anything that happens immediately before the behavior occurs Behavior (B): the action a student demonstrates that can be clearly defined and measured Consequence (C): any event (positive or negative) that occurs after a student demonstrates a behavior Once the function is determined, strategies or interventions can be put into place.
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Implementation Guidance and Considerations
These lessons were developed as part of a National Center on Intensive Intervention Community of Practice with educators focused on implementing intervention virtually during Spring 2020 in response to COVID-19. Participating educators represented Colorado, Oregon, Rhode Island, Texas, and Washington. These activities were developed by practitioners and are intended to showcase example strategies that educators have used to deliver intervention in a virtual environment during the pandemic.
This collection highlights a sampling of articles focused on intensive intervention and data-based individualization (DBI). Although there is a wealth of research on key components of the DBI process (e.g., progress monitoring, validated intervention programs), this list is not intended to include articles that focus on specific steps in the DBI process, nor is it an exhaustive review of all available literature. In the list below, we highlight seminal research on DBI and articles published since 2011, when NCII was first funded.
This brief presents an overview of how social and emotional learning (SEL) relates to intensive intervention and offers sample strategies for skill building among students in need of intensive learning, social, emotional, and behavioral supports.
This activity was developed by Etmi Lopes Martins, school psychologist at Robert F. Kennedy Elementary School in Providence, Rhode Island. This lesson includes a tip sheet and a video tutorial that demonstrates how to create and implement the 5-point scale in a virtual setting. A 5-point scale is a simple social and emotional learning tool that can help students with self-management. To learn more about self-management and the 5-point scale, visit NCII’s behavioral strategy guide.
Getting along with others, paying attention, following directions, making responsible decisions, and managing emotions are challenges for many students who require intensive intervention, and may be linked to difficulties with executive functioning, communication, behavior, and academic learning. In this webinar, presenters Mara Schanfield and Zach Weingarten shared an overview of how social emotional learning (SEL) relates to intensive intervention and offer sample strategies and resources for building social and emotional competencies for students in need of intensive learning, social, emotional, or behavioral supports.
NCII has developed six tools charts intended to assist educators and families in becoming informed consumers who can select academic and behavioral assessment tools and interventions that meet standards for technical rigor and address their specific needs.
Using multiple data sources, the teacher or team makes a decision to adapt the intervention program to better meet the student’s individual needs. The teacher or team outlines these adaptations in an individual student plan. The plan may include adaptation strategies along several dimensions. These strategies may include quantitative changes, such as providing more opportunities for a student to respond by increasing the length or frequency of the intervention, or decreasing the size of the intervention group.
During distance learning, weekly check-ins can help teachers develop relationships with their students and stay connected. For students, check-ins can increase their emotional awareness, as well as their abilities to represent and express thoughts and feelings. Check-ins can also give students opportunities to advocate for themselves because they are asked what they need to be successful. For teachers, weekly check-ins provide insight on how students are feeling and what support they may need for academic and social-emotional skills. This resource was developed by Kerry Hayes Trotta, Etmi Lopes Martins, Kendra Haggerty, Maryann Reilly, Michelle Silvia, and Amy Burns, educators, and administrators at Robert F. Kennedy Elementary School in Providence, Rhode Island. It includes a tip sheet and an example weekly check-in form.
Data teams serve multiple roles in the data-based individualization (DBI) process and across a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS). Although schools may have multiple teams that review different types of data across a multi-tiered system of supports (MTSS), the intensive intervention or DBI team is focused on the needs of individual students who are not making progress in their current intervention or special education program. It is critical that these meetings are driven by data, occur regularly, and use an efficient, consistent process that allows participants to review progress and make intervention decisions for students. NCII has created a series of tools to help teams establish efficient and effective individual student data meetings.