Behavior Strategies to Support Intensifying Interventions

Behavior Strategies to Support Intensifying Interventions

All behavior serves a purpose or function—typically to access or avoid something. Thus, it is important to figure out the function of a student’s behavior to develop a plan with likelihood for success. To help determine function, school teams should start by collecting data on the A, B, Cs of behavior:

  • Antecedent (A): anything that happens immediately before the behavior occurs
  • Behavior (B): the action a student demonstrates that can be clearly defined and measured
  • Consequence (C): any event (positive or negative) that occurs after a student demonstrates a behavior

Once the function is determined, strategies or interventions can be put into place.

NCII developed a series of behavioral strategies to support teachers working with students with primary academic deficits and challenging behaviors. Each strategy incorporates key terminology, an overview of the purpose, and all associated materials. The strategies also integrate approaches for intensification for students with more challenging behaviors. Although teachers supporting students with the most challenging behaviors may be able to implement some of these strategies, these students will likely need support through a more comprehensive behavioral plan. The materials are organized around three overarching areas: antecedent modification, self-management, and reinforcement strategies. Click on the areas below to learn more and find associated resources.

Select an Area to Explore

Antecedent Modification

The purpose of antecedent modification is to decrease the likelihood of problem student behavior by adjusting the learning environment prior to the occurrence of problem behavior and clearly defining appropriate/expected behaviors. Antecedent modifications are proactive, allowing teachers to make adjustments to prevent problem student behavior rather than respond to problem student behavior. Before implementing antecedent modifications, it is important to use data to determine:

  1. Patterns that reveal when the problem behavior occurs (e.g., time of day, specific activities, with a specific person)
  2. Frequency, duration, and intensity of behavior
  3. The hypothesized function the behavior serves (e.g., attention seeking, escape/avoidance)

Strategies and Additional Resources

The following strategies and resources can be used to support educators working with students with primary academic deficits and challenging behaviors. Each of the strategy documents includes (a) purpose and overview; (b) behavior(s) addressed; (c) implementation procedures and considerations; (d) sample scripts or formats; (e) potential intensification strategies; and (f) additional resources (where available).

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Self Management

Self-management is a general competency that students should be able to demonstrate. Teaching students to use techniques to monitor and manage their own behaviors can support them with independent regulation of emotions or behaviors. Self-management systems include self-monitoring (e.g., recording), self-evaluating (e.g., rating) behaviors, or both, in conjunction with reinforcement strategies. Students need to be taught how to use self-management systems, as well as the purpose of monitoring or evaluating one’s own behavior.

Strategies and Additional Resources

The following strategies and resources can be used to support educators working with students with primary academic deficits and challenging behaviors. Each of the strategy documents includes (a) purpose and overview; (b) behavior(s) addressed; (c) implementation procedures and considerations; (d) sample scripts or formats; (e) potential intensification strategies; and (f) additional resources (where available).

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Reinforcement

Reinforcement strategies may be used to help students develop and maintain appropriate behaviors both in the classroom and in other school settings. Reinforcement strategies are used to make the target behavior more likely to happen in the future, and can be positive or negative:

  1. Positive reinforcement: Adding something pleasant or desirable (e.g., toy, food, attention)
  2. Negative reinforcement: Taking something unpleasant or undesired away (e.g., aspirin to relieve a migraine)

Reinforcement strategies should be aligned to the hypothesized function of student behavior and be provided more frequently than a problem behavior occurs.

Strategies and Additional Resources

The following strategies and resources can be used to support educators working with students with primary academic deficits and challenging behaviors. Each of the strategy documents includes (a) purpose and overview; (b) behavior(s) addressed; (c) implementation procedures and considerations; (d) sample scripts or formats; (e) potential intensification strategies; and (f) additional resources (where available).

Reinforcer Assessments

Differential Reinforcement

Non-Contingent Reinforcement

General Resources

Subject
Behavior

Related Resources

Link

Evidence Based Intervention (EBI) Network

Link

Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports Center

Brief

Reducing Behavior Problems in the Elementary School Classroom

See more

TIP FROM THE FIELD

Academics and behavior are often connected, so it is important to ask: "Is the behavior getting in the way of academics, or is it the other way around?" Analyzing data from across academic and behavior domains can support teams with answering this question and hypothesizing the correct function of a student’s behavior.