The purpose of this guide is to provide an overview of behavioral progress monitoring and goal setting to inform data-driven decision making within tiered support models and individualized education programs (IEPs).
This second edition of Screening for Mathematics Difficulties in K-3 Student published in 2011, updates the original version (published in 2007) with new research in the assessment field in developing valid and reliable screening measures for early mathematics difficulties. It focuses on valid and reliable screening measures for students in kindergarten and first grade but also examines data on screening tests for second and third graders, since the goal of screening is to identify students who might struggle to learn mathematics during their initial school years.
Norms for oral reading fluency (ORF) can be used to help educators make decisions about which students might need intervention in reading and to help monitor students’ progress once instruction has begun. This paper describes the origins of the widely used curriculum-based measure of ORF and how the creation and use of ORF norms has evolved over time. Using data from three widely-used commercially available ORF assessments (DIBELS, DIBELS Next, and easyCBM), a new set of compiled ORF norms for grade 1-6 are presented here along with an analysis of how they differ from the norms created in 2006.
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